Cappadocia is one of the world’s most unique natural wonders and is characterized by amazing caves and fairy chimneys. Fairy chimneys or hoodoos are tall thin spires of rock that protrude from the bottom of an arid drainage basin. They are a magnificent natural formation. This land has a long and storied history. It has been controlled by Alexander the Great, many Persian leaders, Rome, and at one point was a region of the Byzantine Empire. Cappadocia contains many underground cities, tunnels, caves, and rock-cut temples. The land remained part of the Ottoman Empire for centuries and today is part of the state of Turkey.
It is a wonderful tourist attraction and has many areas with unique geological, historic and cultural features. The area is largely covered by sedimentary rocks which have been formed in lakes and streams. The volcanic deposits are soft rock and people in near by villages have carved out houses, churches, and monasteries. One example is the Göreme Open Air Museum, comprised of more than 30 rock- carved churches and chapels containing some famous frescoes, dating from the 9th to the 11th centuries.